Charlotte Brontë (21 April 1816 – 31 March 1855) was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood, whose novels are English literature standards. She wrote Jane Eyre under the pen name Currer Bell, a masculine alias as female-written works were not readily accepted. Jane Eyre is considered a monument of feminist work, and years ahead of its time in terms of feminism. The Brontë sisters were extremely close as children, and Charlotte went to college, and tried to earn a living as a governess and a teacher, but eventually returned home. Jane Eyre, published in 1847, was her first novel, followed by Shirley in 1948 and Villette in 1853. In 1848, both Branwell and Emily Brontë died, followed by Anne a year later. Charlotte married Arthur Nicholas Bell in 1954, but died a year later from pregnancy complications.